New York Attorney  Jay Sanchez spoke at the March 2015 "Mapping the Anousim Diaspora" conference organized by the Institute for Sefardi and Anousim Studies at Netanya Academic College in Israel on the topic, "Jewish Pirates and Lawyers of the Caribbean and their Fight against the Inquisition." After giving a moving account of his research into his own Converso background, Jay discussed his view that international legal precedents in effect at the time of the Inquisition should be employed to force a return of property confiscated by the Inquisition, which in turn should be used to fund the return of the Bnei Anousim to Israel.Type your paragraph here.

Keynote Speaker:  Jay Anthony Sanchez
 Topic: “Legal Aspects of the Spanish Inquisition”




Los judíos de Ashkenazic son los judíos que vivieron o viven en Europa del este. Polonia, Alemania, Rusia, Lituania, etc.




Today, Jews descended from the communities where Spanish Jews settled are called Sepharadim. Indeed, the term "Sephardic Jews" is often used by extension to refer to all Jews who are not part of the Ashkenazi (Central and Eastern-European) culture-world. Although some Jews of Spanish heritage resent this loose usage, it reflects the success of Sephardic religious traditions, language and customs in many of the places in which the exiles settled. The "Sephardic Rite" is sometimes used to refer not to the prayer ritual of the Sepharadim but of Rabbi Isaac Luria (d. 1573), an Ashkenazi (!) who combined elements of both Sephardic and Ashkenazic ritual. This prayerbook was adopted by the Hasidim in Eastern Europe and is probably the most common one in use in Israel today.

controlled all of the Peninsula except for a small area from Granada to the Mediterranean. In many of the independent Spanish kingdoms, the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries still saw striking religious, cultural and literary achievements among the Jews, but Jews also faced increasing religious pressures and occasionally were forced to participate in religious "disputations" with Christians.

Violent anti-Jewish riots broke out in several cities in 1391, causeing many to flee, and leaving thousands of Spanish Jews dead. The fifteenth century was marked by continuing hardships and religious pressure, leading many Jews to convert or to leave Spain. In January, 1492, the Muslims were driven out of their last stronghold, Granada, completing the Reconquista.

In March, 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella decreed the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Many Jews converted or left the Iberian peninsula; other Jews went to Portugal, where Judaism could still be practiced freely. But Portugal expelled its Jews in 1497, and the tiny kingdom of Navarre followed suit in 1498.

Judaism could be practiced openly nowhere in the Peninsula. The exact number of Jews who left Spain and Portugal at the end of the fifteenth century is debated by scholars, but may be estimated at several hundred thousand, significant enough to enable Sephardim to establish their own congregations in such places as Morocco, Italy, Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Land of Israel, and elsewhere..

​Anusim (Hebrew: אֲנוּסִים, pronounced [anuˈsim]; singular male, Anús, Hebrew: אָנוּס‎ pronounced [aˈnus]; singular female, Anusáh, Hebrew: אָנוּסָה‎ pronounced [anuˈsa], meaning "Coerced [converted Jews]") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion. The term "anusim" is most properly translated as the "coerced [ones]" or the "forced [ones]".


The religious legal terms anús/anusáh/anusim is applied to those Jews who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will. Depending on the specific Jewish responsa being followed by a Jewish community receiving Anusim, the category of Anusim can also be applied to the first, second, and up to third, fourth, and at most fifth generation descendants of the initial forced converts. In all cases, the categorization as Ansuim is conditional on their continuing to do whatever was/is in their power to continue practicing Judaism under the forced conditions.

Any subsequent generations of descendants of Anusim fall under the separate religious legal category of Bnei Anusim, meaning "Children [of the] Coerced [Jews]".

Los indígenas de Colorado tenían un ancestro judío.

Un grupo de genetistas israelíes halló en el genoma de 16 familias estadounidenses de origen navajo, que pueblan el oeste del Estado de Colorado, las señas claras de las raíces hebreas. Todas compartían la denominada mutación asquenazí, que habría sido introducida hace poco más de 500 años.  

Los judíos Sepharditas son los judíos que vivieron en los países de habla hispana, sobre todo España y Portugal, Israel y el Cercano Oriente. 

Judaism in Spain

Judaism in SpainAccording to Sephardic tradition, the first Jews to arrive in Spain were the exiles from Jerusalem to whom Obadiah referred, who came in the sixth pre-Christian century. Many scholars assume Jews settled in Spain in Roman times, but we have little information about Jewish life in Spain until the time of the Visigothic Spanish kingdom, which outlawed Judaism at the end of the seventh century after the kings had become Catholics. Spain was conquered by the Muslims in 711. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, Spanish Judaism flourished under the Muslims, producing poets, scholars, and courtiers of the first order. After the Christian Reconquista gained Toledo in 1085, when the Almoravids came to rule the Islamic side of the frontier, Jewish cultural achievements in Muslim Spain began to decline, disappearing under the Almohades in the mid-twelfth century. But Christian Spain meanwhile developed its remarkable convivencia in which Jews (and Muslims) were involved in cultural, intellectual, financial and even political life all over Christian Spain. By the mid-thirteenth century, the Christians 

Rabbi  Stephen Leon

Founder ANUSIM CENTER EL PASO, TX.

 
 
Eso significa, concluyeron los especialistas del centro ‘Sheba’, que los indígenas tenían a un ancestro común quien pertenecía a la etnia judía. Es más, las tecnologías avanzadas de la genética les facilitaron especificar el período más o menos exacto en el que vivió aquel progenitor.
Era “un judío que se trasladó de Europa al Nuevo Mundo hace poco más de 500 años, en la época cuando Cristóbal Colón descubría América y mientras la población hebrea era expulsada de España”, según indicó al diario ‘Haaretz’ un miembro del colectivo científico. Pero los indígenas de Colorado, resaltó, nunca han mostrado un mínimo conocimiento de las costumbres judías. Tampoco tienen leyendas que permitan vincularlos con los antepasados del Viejo Mundo.
A raíz de eso los investigadores israelíes se han perdido  en conjeturas, intentando explicar cómo la sangre de un probable participante de los viajes de Colón podía llegar desde las islas Antillas o el litoral caribeño hasta Colorado. Supusieron que se trata de un grupo de indígenas procedente de Sudamérica que allí mismo entró en contacto con el judío. Posteriormente emigrarían primero a México y luego al norte del continente. Asimismo se podría atribuir a los genes sefardíes en los navajos a la expedición perdida del navegante portugués Gaspar Corte Real, ya que históricamente la actual tribu de Colorado poblaba algunos territorios del Canadá, cuyo Este extremo seguramente visitó en 1500-1501 aquel viajero desafortunado.Type your paragraph here.Type your paragraph here.

"Conversos",

meaning "converts [to Christianity]" in Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish).
"New Christians", or cristianos nuevos"

in Spanish, and cristãos novos in Portuguese (Catalan: cristians nous).
"Crypto-Jews", and "Marranos",

literally meaning "swine" in Spanish, and Catalan (where it is spelled marrans), but also carrying the meaning of anusim. Also meaning "anusim" in Portuguese, but not swine, since marrão (derived from marrano) is the word for swine in Portuguese.

The Catholic Church coined the first two terms, the third is more of a modern invention by historians, and the fourth is the insulting term Spanish antisemites gave to the anusim. All four terms are sociological, whereas anusim refers to a status in Jewish law
.

Attorney Jay Sanchez

Takes the Case: Bnei Anousim vs. the Inquisition